This report focuses on energy storage including national grids, batteries and other technologies such as hydrogen and thermal energy storage. It includes information on the size and state of the sector, energy storage applications, raw materials mining, manufacture and recycling. There is also comprehensive information covering trends, applicable regulation, electric vehicle sales, charging infrastructure and developments in the use of batteries in other modes of transport.
Global energy demand is expected to edge up in 2021 after a contraction in 2020 as demand for transport fuels declined. Notwithstanding the overall decline in 2020, there was an increase in demand for renewables – where solar and wind lead growth – in line with global awareness of the need for sustainable energy. Much of increased demand this year is expected to come from developing economies, and coal demand remains significantly higher than renewables.
Much of the current technological focus globally is on batteries, and China is by far the largest battery producer. The number of battery gigafactories in the pipeline, many of which will be making lithium-ion cells for electric vehicles, has increased significantly. The growing adoption of electric vehicles is driving rapidly-increasing demand for battery input commodities, including lithium, cobalt, nickel, graphite, manganese, copper and aluminium. There is also extensive investment in battery charging infrastructure. Battery-operated trains may replace diesel locomotives and the use of battery power for ships may follow suit.
Applications in Houses
Thus far, solar PV has been the only renewable energy source that households are typically using to reduce reliance on the national grid. Household energy storage systems have been adopted rapidly in those countries where governments have subsidised households for applying solar power generation. Current market demand for household energy storage systems, including battery packs, is driven by the need for emergency power supply.